Lancia is a world-famous car manufacturer of Italian origin, whose foundation year is considered to be 1906. Its main production is concentrated in the business and cultural center of Italy, Turin (Torino), here is also the current headquarters. Currently, in addition to cars, the brand produces all kinds of commercial vehicles, passenger buses and trolleybuses, as well as military equipment. Since the mid-1950s, Lancia has been actively involved in car racing.
History of occurrence
It all started with the fact that in November 1906 in a northern town of Italy, Turin, at that time the famous race car driver Vincenzo Lancia, in collaboration with companion Claudio Fogolino, a small commercial enterprise was founded, called Fabbrica Automobili Lancia "
After a short period of time from the start of operation, September 23, 1907, the factory released its debut in its history machine model "18-24 HP". The car received a sonorous and memorable name - "Alpha".
After another year, in 1908, the Fabbrica Automobili Lancia plant developed the next Dialpha model. It had a six-cylinder engine and was an improved version of its predecessor, the Alpha.
Then, at the beginning of 1913, the next Lancia brand car - "Theta" entered the domestic market. It is noteworthy that it was with this model that electronic lighting began to be installed in series in all the original machines of the company. In general, the emergence of "Theta" was quite warmly welcomed by both ordinary Italian buyers and eminent car critics. She quickly managed to establish itself as a reliable and high-quality car.
From the beginning of its founding until the outbreak of the First World War, the automobile company developed quite monochrome and static: new models were produced, but they were not able to conquer the entire international arena. With the outbreak of hostilities, the leadership of Lancia promptly decided to re-qualify the company in the direction of a military enterprise. Thus, lightweight trucks and armored vehicles began to be produced in the factories of the brand. It is noteworthy that it was at this time that a major breakthrough was made in the field of accumulating intellectual potential - the engineers and mechanics of the enterprise managed to develop new revolutionary engines, the volume of which varied from eight to twelve cylinders. In a sense, the First World War was a kind of lifeline for the company. So, at the end of it, the area of Lancia's own industrial territories already exceeded 60 thousand m².
In 1921, the public was presented a completely new automobile model, which made a splash in the car market of that time. It was "Lambda" - the first car in the history of the company, which had a supporting body and independent suspension. The model was sold until 1931.
Following the Lambda, Astura was released. It became the prototype of cars in which the company patented system, combining a frame and an engine, began to be used. Thanks to this innovation, it was possible to eliminate vibrations when driving, which were previously felt in the cabin.
At the end of 1937, the Aprilia model came off the assembly line. She became the last, on which the founder of the company, Vincenzo Lancia personally worked. It is noteworthy that the official presentation of the car took place after the death of the creator.
Company without Vincenzo Lancia
The creator of the automobile company Lancia, Vincenzo Lancia, passed away in 1937, and the last model released by him was "Aprilia". It was replaced by an unusually popular at the turn of the 40-50s of the last century "Aurelia". Its main advantage was a unique exclusive body, which was completely and completely designed in the prestigious auto shop of that time - "Pininfarina".
The designer of the car was the notorious Vittorio Jano. A key feature of the Aurelia was the presence of a six-cylinder engine, which was accompanied by a V-shaped engine.
In 1960, there was a sharp change in the thematic concept of the brand. So, the leadership of Lancia decided to abandon its traditional scheme, which was most clearly reflected in the new front-wheel drive model of the car - "Flavia". The designer of the car was the famous Italian design engineer, Antonio Fessia (Antonio Fessia). "Flavia" had a four-cylinder engine, characterized by the presence of a boxer engine.
The most profitable from a commercial point of view for the company was 1969, since it was at this time that it entered the large automobile manufacturing association of Italian origin, "Fiat".
In collaboration with the Fiat concern, the Lancia brand launched a new Beta car in 1972. Its main innovation was the serial introduction of transversely mounted motors, each of which had its own camshaft. Also, in the same period, a model of a racing sports car was created - "Stratos". The car possessed first-class technical characteristics, revolutionary for that time, this allowed him to win the victory in the international rally world championship for three years in a row.
Despite the fact that the board of directors decided to sell a controlling stake in favor of the Fiat concern, Lancia did not stop developing independently innovative models and components. So, in the framework of the enterprise, a number of original exclusive car models were released:
In the mid-80s of the last century, the brand worked very closely and fruitfully with the automotive company "Saab", establishing an affiliate program. Thanks to this integration, cars like the Alfa Romeo 164 and Lancia Thema saw the light of day.
Car Racing Member
From the mid-1950s to the present day, cars manufactured under the Lancia brand have been actively represented at the most prestigious and significant car races. At different times, the sports cars of the brand could be seen at the following events:
- "Formula 1";
- "Ring racing."
Participation in the "Formula 1"
In 1937, after the death of Vincenzo Lancia, the reins passed to his son, the rightful heir. With the new man coming to power, Lancia's qualifications underwent some significant changes. For example, the leading role in the development of new models began to play their compliance with the requirements of auto racing.
In 1954, the "D50" model rolled off the assembly line, the developer of which was a talented engineer, Vittorio Yano. In the same year, the car became a member of the Spanish Grand Prix and won the pole position. The driver, Alberto Ascari, who was driving at the time, achieved the best lap times.
In 1955, after the tragic death of Askari, the Lancia team had to leave Formula 1 due to financial problems. In total, the brand has 2 victories, as well as 10 podiums.
Participation in the "Rally"
World Rally Championship - this is precisely the sporting event in which Lancia sports cars have been most successful. In 1972, the brand team even managed to win the prestigious competition of automakers - the victory was won by the machine model "Fulvia".
In total, the company managed to win the Rally ten times. The first three victories (1974-1976) were achieved on a specially designed Stratos race car. In 1983, the driver was able to show the best result using the exclusive Rally 037 car. It is noteworthy that he became the only car of the brand that had a two-wheel drive. This victory turned out to be especially significant because it was able to move the seemingly indestructible "Audi Quattro" from the pedestal, which has not had a single defeat since 1987.
but The history of the Lancia team participating in the Rally Championship has several sad episodes. So, twice the riders sitting behind the wheel of cars of this brand, were in terrible accidents.
In 1985, a competitor representing the Lancia 037 crashed, unable to cope with the controls. A year later, the team members, Henri Toivonen and Sergio Croce, were burned alive, flying out of a racetrack in a car.
In 1992, after a series of incidents, the brand management decided to withdraw from rally racing.
Participation in the "Ring Racing"
In the "Ring Racing" car manufacturing company began to take an active part in the early 70s of the twentieth century. So, in 1972, the brand’s team introduced the new Stratos sports car, which became a member of the 5 group. A year later, the same model participated in races in the "4" group.
"LC1" was specifically designed for the 1982 "Ring Race", she performed in group 6. However, in 1984, the organizers of the racing competitions decided to close the sixth category and its subsequent transformation into group "C". On this occasion, the Lancia team has developed a new model of the car "LC2", the hallmark of which was a powerful engine, created on the basis of Ferrari.
"LC2" managed to take the pole position of the competition thirteen times, as well as triple a brilliant victory in the races.
but in 1986, at one of the meetings, it was decided that Lancia would leave racing competitions. This was argued by the fact that cars developed as part of the brand could no longer equal the Porsche models also presented at the "Ring Races". However, unofficial teams of the company continued to take part in the event until 1991.
Lancia Delta is a modern model of a compact car developed by the world famous company of Italian origin, Lancia. Its serial production was launched in 1979 - it was then that the "first generation" was introduced to the general public. It was in circulation until mid-1994. In total, Lancia Delta has three commercially successful generations:
- First generation. The premiere presentation of cars took place in 1979 during the international Frankfurt Motor Show (Salone Internazionale dell'Automobile di Francoforte). The Delta model was a five-door hatchback, the look of which was worked out in detail by a talented Italian car designer, Giorgetto Giugiaro.
Cars of this generation were representatives of the "B" segment.
- Second generation. The second generation cars received the sonorous name "Nuova Delta". Their official presentation was held in 1993. The cars were developed on the basis of the once popular and sought-after Fiat Tipo. It is noteworthy that during their creation, the emphasis was on the side of comfort and convenience, and not on the side of sportiness.
- Third generation. The modern third generation "Delta" launched mass production in 2008. The presentation of cars to the public was held at the Geneva Motor Show (Salone di Ginevra). As distinctive technical characteristics, one can distinguish: powerful gasoline and diesel engines (from 120 to 150 hp and from 200 hp, respectively), a twin-turbo system. Cars are capable of speeds up to 190 km / h. The third generation is a representative of the "C" segment.
It is noteworthy that the automobile model "Lancia Delta" gained worldwide fame thanks to its participation in prestigious rally racing competitions. However, as it develops and improves, it has gone from a certain sportiness to comfort and convenience. Currently, this car is considered one of the most popular in the modern market.